Financial Literacy

Different Types of Taxes in the Philippines

This post is originally shared inside Traders Lounge Facebook group by Gandakoh in the hope of increasing financial literacy. This article includes some comments from TL members kind enough to share their knowledge.

Tax is a fee that people and entities are required to pay to the government to fund various social services and infrastructures that are crucial for nation-building and economic growth.
In the Philippines, the National Internal Revenue Code states the rules on taxation. Also known as the Tax Code, it identifies who should pay taxes and the types of taxes that should be collected from taxpayers.

What are the Types of Taxes?

1. NATIONAL TAXES

National taxes are fees that the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) collects from taxpayers all over the Philippines.
Here are the national taxes imposed on different incomes and transactions in the Philippines:
  • Capital gains tax – Tax on profits from selling an asset (property, jewelry, stocks, etc.) in the Philippines
  • Documentary stamp tax (DST) – Tax on documents, loan contracts, and papers that serve as proof of sale or transfer of ownership of a property
  • Donor’s tax – Tax on a gift or donation, in which both the sender and recipient are living when the gift is given
  • Estate tax – Tax paid by the legal heir before the estate[3] from a deceased person is transferred to their name
  • Excise tax – Tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods in the Philippines
  • Income tax – Tax on a person’s or business’ income or profit
  • Percentage tax – A business tax imposed on non-VAT-registered individuals or corporations that sell or lease goods and services with gross annual sales or receipts not exceeding PHP 3 million
  • Value-added tax (VAT) – A sales tax on consumption imposed on the sale, lease, or importation of goods, properties, and services in the Philippines, which may be passed on to the consumer
  • Withholding tax – Tax withheld from an individual’s income to promote tax compliance and prevent tax evasion

2. LOCAL TAXES

Local taxes[4] are involuntary fees that local government units (LGUs) collect from their constituents and use to finance activities and projects for their city or municipality.
Here are the local taxes that people and businesses pay in the Philippines:
  • Basic real property tax – Tax on the value of real properties such as houses, lands, buildings, etc.
  • Business of printing and publication tax – Tax imposed on businesses that involve printing and publication
  • Franchise tax – Tax imposed on a franchise business
  • Sand, gravel and other quarry resources tax – Tax on the fair market value of ordinary stones, sand, gravel, earth, and other quarry resources extracted from public lands or public waters within the province
  • Professional tax – Tax imposed on professionals such as lawyers, doctors, and engineers
  • Amusement tax – Tax imposed on cinemas, theaters, concert halls, circuses, and other amusement venues
  • Annual fixed tax for delivery trucks and vans – PHP 500 fee for every truck or van used to deliver soft drinks, liquors, or cigarettes within the province
  • Local business tax – Tax imposed by municipalities on different types of businesses within their jurisdiction
  • Barangay tax – Tax imposed on stores or retailers with annual gross sales of up to PHP 50,000 in cities or up to PHP 30,000 in municipalities
  • Community tax – Tax imposed on individuals and corporations within a city’s or municipality’s jurisdiction

3. SPECIAL TAXES

In addition to national taxes and local taxes, there are special taxes[5] that must be paid during certain transactions or purchases.
  • Motor Vehicle User’s Charge (MVUC) – An annual fee charged on every application for vehicle registration
  • Travel tax – An airport fee imposed on Filipino citizens, foreign residents, and non-resident foreigners (who have stayed in the country for more than a year) who are leaving the Philippines
  • Head tax – Tax imposed on foreigners staying in the Philippines for at least 60 days, with permanent residency status in the country, and applying for Re-entry Permit and paid to the immigration officer when entering the country
  • Charges on forest products – Tax on the privilege of exploiting the forest resources in the Philippines
  • Energy consumption tax – Tax on electric power consumption over 650 kWh of each residential customer

TAXPAYER CLASSIFICATION IN THE PHILIPPINES

Under the Tax Code, the following individuals and corporations are required to pay taxes in the Philippines:
  • Filipino citizens living in the Philippines and earning income from sources within and outside the country
  • OFWs, Filipino immigrants, and other nonresident citizens with income from sources within the Philippines
  • Resident and nonresident foreigners earning income from sources within the Philippines
  • Domestic corporations earning income from sources within and outside the Philippines
  • Foreign corporations with income from sources within the Philippines
Failure to pay tax in the Philippines is against the law and results in serious and costly consequences. Punishments for tax evaders include a penalty fee with annual interest on unpaid tax, imprisonment, fines, and temporary closure (for business taxpayers)

 “THIS IS WHERE THE IMBALANCE

EXISTS. BUSSINES OWNERS,

HIGH INCOME CITIZENS, AND CONSUMERS.

THE RICH CAN GET AWAY BY

MANIPULATING BOOKS AND CONSUMERS

DOESN’T HAVE A CHOICE…”

-Ñîwrê Ñwr

“Sana itinuturo eto sa highschool para sa maaga palang mamulat na ang kanilang isipan sa realidad ng buhay.”

-Subutai Khan

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